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LAWN RAKE AND CROSS HEAD ASSEMBLY


U.S. PATENT 6,131,381

Issued: October 17, 2000



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CLAIMS



I Claim:

1. A lawn rake, comprising:

(a) handle means for manipulation of said lawn rake in predetermined manners to effect a raking action;

(b) cross head means connected to said handle means and serving as a support;

(c) a plurality of tine means forming an array carried by said cross head means for coaction with a surface and or material disposed upon the surface when the lawn rake is effecting a raking action;

(d) said cross head means including a tubular, elongated member having a plurality of pairs of apertures in spaced arrangement, each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures loosely positioning one said tine means of said plurality of tine means on said cross head means;

(e) each said tine means of said plurality of tine means being composed of a resilient material, each said tine means including a ground engaging tip, and each said tine means having a looped bend distal said ground engaging tip for engaging the outside cylindrical surface of said member;

(f) said apertures of each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures have clearance with respect to said tine means such that upon application of one or more predetermined forces on each of one or more said tine means during said raking action, said loose positioning results in lateral movement of each of said one or more tine means within the openings of the apertures of the respective said pair of apertures of each of said one or more tine means; and

(g) each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures insertably receives said tine means, and each said tine means is individually removable.

2. The lawn rake of claim 1, wherein said looped bend has a shape including an arc segment of a circle, said looped bend having an inside diameter at said arc segment approximating the outside diameter of said member; and said looped bend pivotally anchors said tine means on said cross head means.

3. The lawn rake of claim 2, wherein said apertures are circular, each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, and said top apertures are colinear and said bottom apertures are colinear.

4. The lawn rake of claim 3, wherein each said tine means of said plurality of tine means has a cross-sectional shape that is circular.

5. The lawn rake of claim 4, wherein said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, and thermoplastic; and said plurality of tine means is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass and thermoplastic.

6. The lawn rake of claim 5, wherein said member is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride and said plurality of tine means is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride.

7. A lawn rake, comprising:

(a) handle means for manipulation of said lawn rake in predetermined manners to effect a raking action;

(b) cross arm means serving as a support;

(c) tee means mounted on said cross arm means for receiving said handle means;

(d) a plurality of tine means forming an array carried by said cross arm means for coaction with a surface and or material disposed upon the surface when the lawn rake is effecting a raking action;

(e) said cross arm means comprising a tubular, elongated member having a plurality of pairs of apertures in spaced arrangement, each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures positioning one said tine means of said plurality of tine means on said cross arm means, with said apertures of each said pair of apertures disposed on opposite sides of said cross arm means;

(f) each said tine means of said plurality of tine means being composed of a resilient material, each said tine means having a ground engaging tip, and each said tine means including a looped bend distal said ground engaging tip for releasably engaging the outside tubular surface of said cross arm means by snap action; and

(g) said apertures of each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures have clearance with respect to said tine means such that each said tine means is individually mountable on and individually removable from, said cross arm means by application of finger force; and each said pair of apertures loosely positions its respective said tine means on said cross arm means within the lateral constraints of the perimeters of said apertures of said pair of apertures.

8. The lawn rake of claim 7, wherein each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures insertably receives said tine means.

9. The lawn rake of claim 8, wherein at least part of said looped bend has the shape of an arc segment of a circle, said looped bend having an inside diameter at said arc segment approximating the outside diameter of said cross arm means; and said looped bend pivotally anchors said tine means on said cross arm means.

10. The lawn rake of claim 9, wherein said array is substantially coplanar, each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, said top apertures and said bottom apertures are circular, said top apertures are colinear, and said bottom apertures are colinear.

11. The lawn rake of claim 10, wherein each said tine means of said plurality of tine means includes a stem intermediate said looped bend and said ground engaging tip, and said stem has a cross-sectional shape that is circular.

12. The lawn rake of claim 11, wherein said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, and thermoplastic; and said plurality of tine means is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass and thermoplastic.

13. The lawn rake of claim 12, wherein said member is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride and said plurality of tine means is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride.

14. The lawn rake of claim 13, wherein said top aperture and said bottom aperture of each said pair of apertures are diametrically opposed with respect to said tubular elongated member.

15. A lawn rake, comprising:

(a) handle means for manipulation of said lawn rake in predetermined manners to effect a raking action;

(b) cross arm means serving as a support, said cross arm means comprising a tubular, elongated member;

(c) tee means mounted on said cross arm means for receiving said handle means;

(d) an array of tine means carried by said cross arm means for coaction with a surface and or material disposed upon the surface when the lawn rake is effecting a raking action;

(e) said cross arm means having a plurality of pairs of apertures in spaced arrangement for insertably receiving said tine means;

(f) each said tine means of said array of tine means being composed of a resilient material, each said tine means including a ground engaging tip, and each said tine means having a looped bend distal said ground engaging tip for engaging the outside tubular surface of said cross arm means by snap action;

(g) said apertures of each pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures have clearance with respect to said tine means such that each said tine means is individually mountable on and individually removable from, said cross arm means by application of finger force; and each said pair of apertures movably positions said tine means on said cross arm means within the lateral constraints of the perimeters of said apertures of each said pair of apertures; and

(h) said looped bend is releasable from said cross arm means during said manipulation of said lawn rake upon application of a predetermined upwardly force on said ground engaging tip.

16. The lawn rake of claim 15, wherein said looped bend is formed as an arc segment of a circle, said looped bend having an inside diameter at said arc segment approximating the outside diameter of said cross arm means; and said looped bend pivotally anchors said tine means on said cross arm means.

17. The lawn rake of claim 16, wherein each said tine means of said array of tine means further includes a stem intermediate said looped bend and said ground engaging tip; and said stem and said looped bend have a cross-sectional shape that is circular.

18. The lawn rake of claim 17, wherein said array is substantially coplanar, each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, each said top aperture is circular, said top apertures are colinear, and said bottom apertures are colinear.

19. The lawn rake of claim 18, wherein said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, and thermoplastic; and each said tine means of said array of tine means is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass and thermoplastic.

20. The lawn rake of claim 19, wherein said member is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride and all said tine means of said array of tine means are made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride.

21. The lawn rake of claim 20, wherein said tee means includes a socket portion for connection of said handle means, and a barrel portion perpendicular to said socket portion, said barrel portion having an internal cylindrical surface for frictionally engaging said cross arm means, with the width of said barrel portion approximating the outside diameter of said socket portion.

22. The lawn rake of claim 21, wherein said top aperture and said bottom aperture of each said pair of apertures are diametrically opposed with respect to said cross arm means.

23. A lawn rake, comprising:

(a) a rake handle;

(b) a cross head connected to said rake handle, said cross head including an elongated cylindrical tube;

(c) a plurality of tines carried by said cross head;

(d) said tube having a plurality of top apertures in spaced arrangement and a plurality of bottom apertures in spaced arrangement, each said top aperture of said plurality of top apertures together with one said bottom aperture of said plurality of bottom apertures comprising a pair of apertures, with said top aperture and said bottom aperture of each said pair of apertures aligned on opposite sides of said tube for positioning one said tine of said plurality of tines on said cross head;

(e) each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs insertably receives one said tine of said plurality of tines, and each said tine is individually removable;

(f) each said tine of said plurality of tines being composed of a resilient material, each said tine terminating in a looped bend for releasably engaging the outside cylindrical surface of said tube by snap action, and each said tine including a ground engaging tip, distal said looped bend, freely disposed for coaction with a surface upon which the lawn rake operates;

(g) at least part of said looped bend is shaped as an arc segment of a circle, said looped bend having an inside diameter at said arc segment approximating the outside diameter of said tube; and said looped bend pivotally anchors said tine on said cross head; and

(h) said top aperture and said bottom aperture of each said pair of apertures have clearance substantially around said one tine of said plurality of tines such that each said pair of apertures loosely positions its respective tine on said cross head and such that during said coaction, upon application of one or more predetermined forces on one or more said tines, the lateral position and or axial orientation of said one or more tines is are self-adjusting within the openings of the respective said pair of apertures of each of said one or more tines.

24. The lawn rake of claim 23, wherein said apertures are circular, said top apertures are colinear, and said bottom apertures are colinear.

25. The lawn rake of claim 24, wherein each said tine of said plurality of tines has a cross-sectional shape that is circular.

26. The lawn rake of claim 25, wherein said tube is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, and thermoplastic; and said plurality of tines is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass and thermoplastic.

27. The lawn rake of claim 26, wherein said tube is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride and said plurality of tines is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride.

28. The lawn rake of claim 27, wherein said top aperture and said bottom aperture of each said pair of apertures are diametrically aligned on opposite sides of said tube.

29. A lawn rake, comprising:

(a) a rake handle for manipulation of said lawn rake in predetermined manners to effect a raking action;

(b) a cross arm comprising a tubular, elongated member having a radially symmetric cross section;

(c) a truncated tee mounted on said cross arm for receiving said rake handle;

(d) an array of tines carried by said cross arm;

(e) said cross arm having a plurality of pairs of apertures in spaced arrangement for insertably receiving said tines, said apertures of each said pair of apertures aligned on opposite sides of said cross arm;

(f) each said tine of said array of tines being composed of a resilient material, each said tine including a ground engaging tip, and each said tine having a looped bend distal said ground engaging tip for releasably engaging the outside surface of said cross arm by snap action;

(g) said apertures of each said pair of apertures have clearance substantially around one said tine of said array of tines such that each said tine of said array of tines is individually mountable on and individually removable from, said cross arm by application of finger force, and such that during said raking action, each said tine is laterally positionable and or axially rotatable on said cross arm within the openings of its respective said pair of apertures; and

(h) said looped bend of each of one or more said tines of said array of tines is releasable from said cross arm during said raking action upon application of a predetermined upwardly force on the respective ground engaging tip of each of said one or more tines.

30. The lawn rake of claim 29, wherein at least part of said looped bend forms an arc segment of a circle, said looped bend having an inside diameter at said arc segment approximating the outside diameter of said cross arm; and said looped bend pivotally anchors said tine on said cross arm.

31. The lawn rake of claim 30, wherein said array is substantially coplanar, each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, said top and bottom apertures are circular, said top apertures are colinear, and said bottom apertures are colinear.

32. The lawn rake of claim 31, wherein each said tine of said array of tines has a cross-sectional shape that is circular.

33. The lawn rake of claim 32, wherein said truncated tee includes a socket portion for connection of said rake handle, said truncated tee further includes a barrel portion perpendicular to said socket portion, with the width of said barrel portion approximating the outside diameter of said socket portion, and said barrel portion has an internal cylindrical surface for frictionally engaging said cross arm.

34. The lawn rake of claim 33, wherein said cross arm is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, and thermoplastic; said truncated tee is made from a thermoplastic material; and each said tine of said array of tines is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass and thermoplastic.

35. The lawn rake of claim 34, wherein said cross arm is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride, said truncated tee is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride, and each said tine of said array of tines is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride.

36. A lawn rake, comprising:

(a) a rake handle;

(b) a cross arm comprising a tubular, elongated member;

(c) a truncated tee mounted on said cross arm for receiving said rake handle;

(d) a plurality of tines in side-by-side spaced arrangement forming an array carried by said cross arm, said array subtending an obtuse angle with respect to said rake handle;

(e) said cross arm having a plurality of pairs of aligned apertures for inserting said tines;

(f) each said tine of said plurality of tines being composed of a resilient material, each said tine terminating in a looped bend for releasably engaging the outside cylindrical surface of said cross arm by snap action, and each said tine including a ground engaging tip, distal said looped bend and freely disposed for coaction with a surface upon which the lawn rake operates; and

(g) each of said apertures of each said pair of apertures has clearance substantially around one tine of said plurality of tines such that each said tine of said plurality of tines is individually mountable on and individually removable from, said cross arm by application of finger force; and each said pair of apertures loosely positions said one tine of said plurality of tines on said cross arm such that during said coaction, upon application of one or more predetermined forces on one or more said tines, the lateral position and or axial orientation of said one or more tines is are self-adjusting within the openings of its or their respective said pair of apertures.

37. The lawn rake of claim 36, wherein said looped bend is formed into a shape including an arc segment of a circle, said looped bend having an inside diameter at said arc segment approximating the outside diameter of said cross arm; and said looped bend pivotally anchors said tine on said cross arm.

38. The lawn rake of claim 37, wherein each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, said top apertures have a shape selected from the group consisting of circular and slotted, and said bottom apertures have a shape selected from the group consisting of circular and slotted.

39. The lawn rake of claim 38, wherein said spaced arrangement is selected from the group consisting of colinear, arcuately curvilinear, alternately disposed in two rows, sequentially disposed in three rows, and sequentially disposed in a plurality of rows.

40. The lawn rake of claim 39, wherein said spaced arrangement is symmetric about said truncated tee.

41. The lawn rake of claim 40, wherein said resilient material is selected from the group consisting of wire and rod, both having a circular cross-section.

42. The lawn rake of claim 41, wherein said truncated tee includes a socket portion for connection of said rake handle, and a barrel portion, perpendicular to said socket portion, said barrel portion having an internal cylindrical surface for frictionally engaging said cross arm, with the width of said barrel portion approximating the outside diameter of said socket portion.

43. The lawn rake of claim 42, wherein said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, and thermoplastic; said truncated tee is made from a thermoplastic material; and each said tine of said plurality of tines is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass and thermoplastic.

44. The lawn rake of claim 43, wherein said member is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride, said truncated tee is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride, and each said tine of said plurality of tines is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride.

45. The lawn rake of claim 44, wherein said top aperture and said bottom aperture of each said pair of apertures are diametrically aligned with respect to said cross arm.

46. The lawn rake of claim 45, wherein said obtuse angle ranges from about 130.degree. to about 170.degree..

47. A lawn rake, comprising:

(a) a rake handle for manipulation of said lawn rake in first predetermined manners to effect a leaf and lawn debris raking action, and in second predetermined manners to effect a leaf and lawn debris pushing action;

(b) a cross arm comprising a tubular, elongated member;

(c) connecting means mounted on said cross arm for receiving said rake handle;

(d) a plurality of tines in side-by-side spaced arrangement forming an array carried by said cross arm, and said array, with said tines in contact with a surface upon which leaves and lawn debris are disposed, deflects in a first direction during said leaf and lawn debris raking action, and in a second direction, opposite said first direction, during said leaf and lawn debris pushing action;

(e) said cross arm having a plurality of pairs of apertures for inserting said tines, said apertures of each said pair of apertures being disposed on opposite sides of said cross arm;

(f) each tine of said plurality of tines being composed of a resilient material, each said tine terminating in a looped bend for engaging the outside cylindrical surface of said cross arm by snap action, and each said tine including a ground engaging tip, distal said looped bend and freely disposed for coaction with the surface upon which the lawn rake operates; and

(g) each of said apertures of each said pair of apertures has clearance substantially around one said tine of said plurality of tines such that each said tine of said plurality of tines is mountable on and removable from, said cross arm by application of finger force; and said apertures of each said pair of apertures movably position one said tine on said cross arm such that upon application of one or more predetermined forces on one or more said tines during said manipulation of said lawn rake, said one or more tines are laterally repositionable and or axially rotatable within the openings of said apertures of their respective said pair of apertures.

48. The lawn rake of claim 47, wherein said looped bend has a shape including an arc segment of a circle, said looped bend having an inside diameter at said arc segment approximating the outside diameter of said cross arm; and said looped bend pivotally anchors said tine on said cross arm.

49. The lawn rake of claim 48, wherein each said tine of said plurality of tines has a stem intermediate said looped bend and said ground engaging tip, and said stem has a cross-sectional shape that is circular.

50. The lawn rake of claim 49, wherein any said tine of said plurality of tines is releasable from said cross arm during said manipulation of said lawn rake upon application of a predetermined upwardly force on said ground engaging tip.

51. The lawn rake of claim 50, wherein said array is substantially coplanar, said apertures are circular, each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, said top apertures are colinear, and said bottom apertures are colinear.

52. The lawn rake of claim 51, wherein said connecting means comprises a truncated tee having a socket portion for connection of said rake handle, and a barrel portion, perpendicular to said socket portion; said barrel portion having an internal cylindrical surface for frictionally engaging said cross arm, with the width of said barrel portion approximating the outside diameter of said socket portion.

53. The lawn rake of claim 52, wherein said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, and thermoplastic; said truncated tee is made from a thermoplastic material; and each said tine of said plurality of tines is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass and thermoplastic.

54. The lawn rake of claim 53, wherein said member is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride, said truncated tee is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride, and said plurality of tines is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride.

55. The lawn rake of claim 54, wherein said array subtends an obtuse angle with respect to said rake handle.

56. A cross head assembly, comprising:

(a) cross head means serving as a support;

(b) a plurality of tine means forming an array carried by said cross head means for coaction with a surface and or material disposed upon the surface when the cross head assembly is effecting a leaf and lawn debris gathering action;

(c) said cross head means including an elongated cylindrical tube having a plurality of pairs of apertures in spaced arrangement for insertably receiving said tine means; and said tube having a radially symmetric cross section;

(d) each said tine means of said plurality of tine means being loosely positioned by the apertures of one pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures;

(e) each said tine means of said plurality of tine means being composed of a resilient material, each said tine means including a ground engaging tip, and each said tine means having a looped bend distal said ground engaging tip for releasably engaging the outside cylindrical surface of said tube by snap action;

(f) each said looped bend forms an arc segment of a circle, each said looped bend having an inside radius of curvature at said arc segment approximating the outside radius of curvature of said tube;

(g) said apertures of each said pair of apertures have clearance substantially around one said tine means of said plurality of tine means such that each said tine means is individually mountable on, and individually removable from, said cross head means by application of finger force; and

(h) each said tine means has freedom of movement within the lateral constraints of the perimeters of said apertures of its respective said pair of apertures.

57. The cross head assembly of claim 56, wherein said looped bend pivotally anchors said tine means on said cross head means; and said looped bend is releasable from said cross head means during said coaction with said surface upon application of a predetermined upwardly force on the respective ground engaging tip of each of said one or more tine means.

58. The cross head assembly of claim 57, wherein said-array is substantially coplanar, said apertures are circular, each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, and said top apertures are colinear and said bottom apertures are colinear.

59. The cross head assembly of claim 58, wherein each said tine means of said plurality of tine means further includes a stem intermediate said looped bend and said ground engaging tip, and said stem has a cross-sectional shape that is circular.

60. The cross head assembly of claim 59, wherein said tube is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, and thermoplastic; and said plurality of tine means is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass and thermoplastic.

61. The cross head assembly of claim 60, wherein said tube is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride and said plurality of tine means is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride.

62. A cross head assembly, comprising:

(a) a cross head including a tubular, elongated member;

(b) a plurality of tines forming an array carried by said cross head for coaction with a surface and or material disposed upon the surface;

(c) said member having a plurality of pairs of apertures in spaced arrangement, each said pair of apertures-of said plurality of pairs of apertures receiving, and loosely positioning on said cross head, one tine of said plurality of tines; and both of said apertures of each said pair of apertures have clearance substantially around their respective said tine for loosely positioning their respective said tine on said cross head within the openings of the aforementioned both of said apertures;

(d) each said tine of said plurality of tines being composed of a material having resilient flexibility, each said tine including a ground engaging tip, each said tine having a looped bend distal said ground engaging tip for releasably engaging the outside cylindrical surface of said member by snap action, and each said tine further includes a stem intermediate said looped bend and said ground engaging tip;

(e) said looped bend has a shape including an arc segment of a circle, said looped bend having an inside diameter at said arc segment approximating the outside diameter of said member;

(f) each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures insertably receives its respective said tine; said stem of each said tine of said plurality of tines has freedom of movement to laterally reposition and or axially pivot within the openings of both of said apertures of the respective said pair of apertures of each said tine upon application of one or more predetermined forces on each said tine during said coaction; and each said tine is individually removable; and

(g) each said looped bend pivotally anchors its respective said tine on said cross head.

63. The cross head assembly of claim 62, wherein said array is substantially coplanar, said apertures are circular, each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, said top apertures are colinear, and said bottom apertures are colinear.

64. The cross head assembly of claim 63, wherein said stem of each said tine of said plurality of tines has a cross-sectional shape that is circular.

65. The cross head assembly of claim 64, wherein said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass and thermoplastic; and said plurality of tines is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass and thermoplastic.

66. The cross head assembly of claim 65, wherein said member is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride and said plurality of tines is made from a thermoplastic material selected from the class of thermoplastic materials generally referred to as polyvinylchloride.

67. The cross head assembly of claim 66, wherein said top aperture and said bottom aperture of each said pair of apertures are diametrically opposed with respect to said member, and said tines have uniform tip spacing.

68. A cross head assembly, comprising:

(a) a tubular elongated member;

(b) a plurality of tine means in spaced arrangement forming an array carried by said member for coaction with a surface and or material disposed upon the surface;

(c) said member having a plurality of pairs of apertures, each pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures insertably receiving and movably positioning one tine means of said plurality of tine means on said member within the openings of said pair of apertures;

(d) each tine means of said plurality of tine means being composed of a resilient material, each said tine means including a ground engaging tip, each said tine means having a looped bend distal said ground engaging tip for releasably engaging the outside cylindrical surface of said member by snap action, and said looped bend has an inside radius of curvature approximating the outside radius of curvature of said member; and

(e) for each pair of apertures and its respective tine means:

(i) each aperture of said pair of apertures has clearance all around said tine means when said tine means is manually positioned and held so that it is not touching the perimeter of either aperture of said pair of apertures;

(ii) said looped bend of said tine means has clearance with respect to said outside cylindrical surface when said tine means is manually positioned and held in contact with the respective point on the perimeter of each said aperture of said pair of apertures, that is closest to said looped bend; and

(iii) said clearance of each said aperture of said pair of apertures and said clearance of said looped bend, together result in a loose mounting of said tine means on said member such that said tine means can freely wiggle back and forth within the openings of both apertures of said pair of apertures in any direction upon manually shaking said cross head assembly back and forth in said direction.

69. The cross head assembly of claim 68, wherein:

(a) each aperture of each said pair of apertures is circular;

(b) each said tine means of said plurality of tine means has a cross-sectional shape that is circular;

(c) said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride; and

(d) said plurality of tine means is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride.

70. A cross head assembly, comprising:

(a) a tubular elongated member;

(b) a plurality of tine means in spaced arrangement forming an array carried by said member for coaction with a surface and or material disposed upon the surface;

(c) said member having a plurality of pairs of apertures, each pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures insertably receiving and movably positioning one tine means of said plurality of tine means on said member within the openings of said pair of apertures;

(d) each tine means of said plurality of tine means being composed of a resilient material, each said tine means including a ground engaging tip, each said tine means having a looped bend distal said ground engaging tip for releasably engaging the outside cylindrical surface of said member by snap action, and said looped bend has an inside radius of curvature approximating the outside radius of curvature of said member; and

(e) for each pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures and the respective tine means positioned within the openings of each pair of apertures:

(i) each aperture of said pair of apertures has clearance substantially around said tine means; and

(ii) said clearance, together with said looped bend having resilient flexibility, results in a loose mounting of said tine means on said member such that said tine means can move back and forth within the openings of both apertures of said pair of apertures in any direction upon application of finger force on said tine means in said direction.

71. The cross head assembly of claim 70, wherein:

(a) each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, all top apertures are colinear, and all bottom apertures are colinear;

(b) each said tine means of said plurality of tine means has a cross-sectional shape that is circular;

(c) said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride; and

(d) said plurality of tine means is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride.

72. A cross head assembly, comprising:

(a) a tubular elongated member;

(b) a plurality of tine means in spaced arrangement forming an array carried by said member for coaction with a surface and or material disposed upon the surface;

(c) said member having a plurality of pairs of apertures, each pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures insertably receiving and movably positioning one tine means of said plurality of tine means on said member within the openings of said pair of apertures;

(d) each tine means of said plurality of tine means being composed of a resilient material, each said tine means including a ground engaging tip, each said tine means having a looped bend distal said ground engaging tip for releasably engaging the outside cylindrical surface of said member by snap action, and said looped bend has an inside radius of curvature approximating the outside radius of curvature of said member; and

(e) for each pair of apertures together with its respective tine means:

(i) each aperture of said pair of apertures has clearance substantially around said tine means; and

(ii) said clearance, together with said looped bend having resilient flexibility, results in a loose mounting of said tine means on said member such that the position and or axial orientation of said tine means within the openings of both apertures of said pair of apertures changes upon application of one or more predetermined forces on said tine means during said coaction.

73. The cross head assembly of claim 72, wherein:

(a) each said aperture of each said pair of apertures is circular;

(b) each said pair of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, each said pair of apertures has an axis extending through the center of said top aperture and the center of said bottom aperture, and all said axes are parallel and coplanar;

(c) each said tine means of said plurality of tine means has a cross-sectional shape that is circular;

(d) said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride; and

(e) said plurality of tine means is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride.

74. A cross head assembly, comprising:

(a) cross head means serving as a support, said cross head means including a tubular elongated member;

(b) a plurality of individually replaceable tine means in side-by-side spaced arrangement forming an array carried by said cross head means for coaction with a surface and or material disposed upon the surface;

(c) said member having a plurality of pairs of circular apertures, each pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures insertably receiving, and positioning on said cross head means, one tine means of said plurality of tine means;

(d) with respect to each pair of apertures together with its respective tine means, both apertures of each said pair of apertures have clearance substantially around the respective tine means positioned by both said apertures such that each said tine means has freedom of movement to laterally reposition and or axially rotate within the openings of its respective said pair of apertures upon application of one or more predetermined forces on each said tine means during said coaction; and

(e) each tine means of said plurality of tine means being composed of a resilient material, each said tine means including a ground engaging tip, and each said tine means having a looped bend distal said ground engaging tip for releasably engaging the outside cylindrical surface of said member by snap action, and said looped bend has a curvature that parallels the curvature of said outside cylindrical surface.

75. The cross head assembly of claim 74, wherein:

(a) said looped bend of each said tine means has clearance with respect to said cross head means when each said tine means is simultaneously in contact with the perimeters of both apertures of its respective said pair of apertures, said contact taking place on the side of both said apertures of each respective said pair of apertures closest to said looped bend; and

(b) said clearance of each said aperture of each said pair of apertures, together with said clearance of said looped bend of each said tine means, results in a loose mounting of each said tine means on said cross head means such that each said tine means can freely wiggle back and forth in any direction within the openings of both said apertures of its respective said pair of apertures upon manually shaking said cross head assembly in said direction.

76. The cross head assembly of claim 75, wherein:

(a) each said pair of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, said top apertures are colinear and said bottom apertures are colinear;

(b) each said tine means of said plurality of tine means has a cross-sectional shape that is circular;

(c) said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride; and

(d) said plurality of tine means is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride.

77. The cross head assembly of claim 74, wherein said clearance of both said apertures of each said pair of apertures, and said looped bend of each said tine means having resilient flexibility, together result in a loose mounting of each said tine means on said cross head means such that each said tine means can move back and forth within both said apertures of its respective said pair of apertures in any direction upon application of finger force on each said tine means in said direction.

78. The cross head assembly of claim 77, wherein:

(a) each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, said top apertures are colinear, and said bottom apertures are colinear;

(b) each said tine means of said plurality of tine means has a cross-sectional shape that is circular;

(c) said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride; and

(d) said plurality of tine means is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride.

79. A lawn rake, comprising:

(a) handle means for manipulation of said lawn rake in predetermined manners to effect a raking action;

(b) cross head means connected to said handle means and serving as a support;

(c) a plurality of tines forming an array carried by said cross head means for coaction with a surface and or material disposed upon the surface when the lawn rake is effecting a raking action;

(d) said cross head means including a tubular elongated member having a plurality of pairs of apertures in spaced arrangement, each pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures insertably receiving and positioning one tine of said plurality of tines on said cross head means within the openings of said pair of apertures;

(e) each tine of said plurality of tines being composed of a resilient material, each said tine including a ground engaging tip, each said tine having a looped bend distal said ground engaging tip for engaging the outside cylindrical surface of said member, and said looped bend has an inside radius of curvature approximating the outside radius of curvature of said member; and

(f) for each pair of apertures and its respective tine:

(i) each aperture of each said pair of apertures has clearance all around its respective said tine when each said tine is manually positioned and held so that each said tine is not touching the perimeter of either aperture of its respective said pair of apertures;

(ii) said looped bend of each said tine has clearance with respect to said outside cylindrical surface when each said tine is manually positioned and held simultaneously in contact with the perimeters of both apertures of its respective said pair of apertures, said contact taking place on the side of said apertures of each respective said pair of apertures closest to said looped bend; and

(iii) said clearance of each said aperture of each said pair of apertures with respect to the respective said tine of each said pair of apertures, and said clearance of said looped bend of each said tine with respect to said outside cylindrical surface, together result in a loose mounting of each said tine on said cross head means such that each said tine can freely wiggle back and forth within both said apertures of its respective said pair of apertures in any direction upon manually shaking said cross head assembly in said direction.

80. The lawn rake of claim 79, wherein:

(a) each aperture of each said pair of apertures is circular;

(b) each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, said top apertures are colinear and said bottom apertures are colinear;

(c) each said tine of said plurality of tines has a cross-sectional shape that is circular;

(d) said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride; and

(e) said plurality of tines is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride.

81. A lawn rake, comprising:

(a) handle means for manipulation of said lawn rake in predetermined manners to effect a raking action;

(b) cross head means connected to said handle means and serving as a support;

(c) a plurality of tines forming an array carried by said cross head means for coaction with a surface and or material disposed upon the surface when the lawn rake is effecting a raking action;

(d) said cross head means including a tubular elongated member having a plurality of pairs of apertures in spaced arrangement, each pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures insertably receiving and positioning one tine of said plurality of tines on said cross head means within the openings of said pair of apertures;

(e) each tine of said plurality of tines being composed of a resilient material, each said tine including a ground engaging tip, each said tine having a looped bend distal said ground engaging tip for engaging the outside cylindrical surface of said member, and said looped bend has an inside radius of curvature approximating the outside radius of curvature of said member; and

(f) for each pair of apertures and the respective tine positioned within the openings of each pair of apertures:

(i) each aperture of said pair of apertures has clearance substantially around said tine; and

(ii) said clearance, together with said looped bend having resilient flexibility, results in a loose mounting of said tine on said cross head means such that said tine can move back and forth within both apertures of said pair of apertures in any direction upon application of finger force on said tine in said direction.

82. The lawn rake of claim 81, wherein:

(a) each aperture of each said pair of apertures is circular;

(b) each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, said top apertures are colinear and said bottom apertures are colinear;

(c) each said tine of said plurality of tines has a cross-sectional shape that is circular;

(d) said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride; and

(e) said plurality of tines is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride.

83. A lawn rake, comprising:

(a) handle means for manipulation of said lawn rake in predetermined manners to effect a raking action;

(b) cross head means connected to said handle means and serving as a support;

(c) a plurality of tines forming an array carried by said cross head means for coaction with a surface and or material disposed upon the surface when the lawn rake is effecting a raking action;

(d) said cross head means including a tubular elongated member having a plurality of pairs of apertures in spaced arrangement, each pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures insertably receiving and movably positioning one tine of said plurality of tines on said cross head means within the openings of said pair of apertures;

(e) each tine of said plurality of tines being composed of a resilient material, each said tine including a ground engaging tip, each said tine having a looped bend distal said ground engaging tip for engaging the outside cylindrical surface of said member, and said looped bend has an inside radius of curvature approximating the outside radius of curvature of said member; and

(f) for each pair of apertures together with its respective tine:

(i) each aperture of said pair of apertures has clearance substantially around said tine; and

(ii) said clearance, together with said looped bend having resilient flexibility, results in a loose mounting of said tine on said cross head means such that the position and axial orientation of said tine within the openings of both apertures of said pair of apertures changes upon application of one or more predetermined forces on said tine during said coaction.

84. The lawn rake of claim 83, wherein:

(a) each aperture of each said pair of apertures is circular;

(b) each said pair of apertures of said plurality of pairs of apertures comprises a top aperture and a bottom aperture, said top apertures are colinear and said bottom apertures are colinear;

(c) each said tine of said plurality of tines has a cross-sectional shape that is circular;

(d) said member is made from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride; and

(e) said plurality of tines is made from a material selected from the group consisting of fiberglass, thermoplastic, and polyvinylchloride.

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